Ligaments are strong bands of tissue, made of collagen, that connect bone to bone. There are numerous ligaments that provide mobility and stability to the hand particularly the collateral, dorsal, volar, and interosseous ligaments. The wrist has a complex web of ligaments stabilizing the carpal bones. These include the dorsal intercarpal ligaments, the palmar intercarpal ligaments, the interosseous intercarpal ligaments, the pisohamate ligament, and the pisometacarpal ligament.
The collateral ligaments are a critical component in each of the joints in the fingers. Each phalangeal joint has two collateral ligaments, one on each side that provides stability, and prevent abnormal bending of these joints.
One of the most problematic areas of the hand is the carpal tunnel. The carpal tunnel is a structure in the wrist, formed by the carpal bones as the floor, and the transverse carpal ligament as the roof. Within the carpal tunnel are the median nerve, median artery and flexor tendons. These structures travel through the carpal tunnel from the forearm through the wrist and into the hand. The nerves and tendons that travel through the carpal tunnel are what give feeling and movement to the hand and fingers. When there is inflammation in the carpal tunnel, numbness or pain can occur in the hand.